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汽车废弃轮胎危害有多大?又该如何处理?

hxyxm 于2019-11-21发布 l 已有人浏览
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随着汽车数量的迅速增加,如何处理大量的废弃轮胎已成为大问题,而在印度北部还在使用传统的高温分解的方式对废弃轮胎进行处理。这也对当地村民的生活造成重大影响。
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Where Do Old Tires Go

废弃轮胎的去处及其危害

香港本港台现场报码Not long ago, Nabipur was a quiet farming village in northern India。 Now the village is home to several large furnaces。 They burn old tires from Western countries。 The air is sometimes thick with smoke and the soil black with soot。

不久前,纳比普尔还是印度北部一个安静的农村。现在村子里有几座大火炉。他们烧西方国家的旧轮胎。空气中有时弥漫着浓浓的烟雾,土壤被煤烟熏黑。

By burning tires, the furnaces produce a low-quality oil in a process known as pyrolysis。

通过燃烧轮胎,炉子产生一种低质量的油,这个过程被称为高温分解。

Six years ago, there were no pyrolysis production centers in the village, about 110 kilometers south of New Delhi. Now Nabipur has at least 10 plants, with most operating at night to avoid inspection, some locals say.

六年前,这个位于新德里以南约110公里的村庄还没有热解生产中心。一些当地人说,现在纳比普尔至少有10家工厂,大多数都在晚上运营,以避免检查。

Used tires are not available locally, so they import from abroad, said Shiva Choudhary, a businessman in Nabipur. "They clean their own country and dump their garbage on us."

纳比普尔的商人希瓦·乔杜里说:“当地没有二手轮胎,所以只能从国外进口,”。“他们打扫自己的国家,把垃圾倒在我们身上。”

The Reuters news agency sent reporters to three small pyrolysis plants in the village。

香港本港台现场报码路透社派出记者前往村里的三个小型热解厂。

At one, workers wore no safety equipment。 Black soot covered their skin and clothes。 The owner, Pankaj, said a trader sells him tires imported from overseas。

有一次,工人们没有穿戴安全设备。黑色的烟灰覆盖着他们的皮肤和衣服。店主潘卡伊说,一个商人把从海外进口的轮胎卖给他。

Villagers said they have suffered from breathing problems and eye and throat infections since the plants began expanding. Farmers say they have found black dust in their soil.

村民们说,自从这些工厂开始扩建以来,他们一直受到呼吸问题、眼睛和喉咙感染的困扰。农民们说他们在土壤中发现了黑色的尘土。

The Reuters news agency could not independently confirm the claims. It was also not possible to verify if the operations had a government permit to operate.

香港本港台现场报码路透社无法独立证实这一说法。也无法核实这些行动是否有政府的作业许可证。

International trade in waste tires has almost doubled over the past five years, mainly to developing countries like India and Malaysia。 This information comes from customs records provided to the United Nations。

过去5年,废轮胎的国际贸易几乎翻了一番,主要流向印度和马来西亚等发展中国家。这些资料来自提供给联合国的海关记录。

Britain is currently the largest tire exporter, followed by Italy and the United States. India, responsible for 32% of all imports worldwide last year, is by far the biggest buyer.

英国目前是最大的轮胎出口国,其次是意大利和美国。印度去年占全球进口总额的32%,是最大的买家。

The Basel Convention is an international agreement that governs trade in dangerous waste. The convention does not define tires as hazardous, meaning there are few restrictions on trading them.

《巴塞尔公约》是一项管理危险废物贸易的国际协定。公约并没有将轮胎定义为有害的,这意味着对轮胎的贸易几乎没有限制。

In many countries, such as the United States, most old tires are placed in landfills, recycled or used as fuel in factories.

在许多国家,如美国,大多数旧轮胎被放在垃圾填埋场,回收或在工厂用作燃料。

Pyrolysis supporters say the process can be a relatively clean way of disposing of tires and turning them into useful fuel. However, controlling pollution and processing waste can be costly and difficult to make profitable on a mass scale.

热解支持者说,这个过程可以是一个相对干净的方式处理轮胎,并把它们变成有用的燃料。然而,控制污染和处理垃圾的成本很高,而且很难大规模盈利。

State-of-the-art plants can cost tens of millions of dollars. However, basic Chinese-made pyrolysis equipment can be purchased online for as little as $30,000.

最先进的核电站可能耗资数千万美元。然而,中国制造的基本热解设备在网上只需3万美元就可以买到。

At one plant Reuters visited in Malaysia, Bangladeshi immigrants covered in dust put imported tires into a Chinese-made furnace。 They live in a small shelter next to the furnaces。

路透社在马来西亚访问的一家工厂,满身灰尘的孟加拉国移民将进口轮胎放入中国制造的熔炉。他们住在火炉旁边的一个小棚子里。

People don't know where old tires go, said the owner, who gave his name only as Sam. "But if my factory doesn't exist, where will the tires go?" He said he had a permit to operate. However, Reuters could not verify this information.

店主山姆说:“人们不知道旧轮胎去哪儿了,”。“但如果我的工厂不存在,轮胎又会去哪里呢?”他说他有营业执照。然而,路透社无法证实这一点。

Burning tires can release numerous harmful chemicals and gases into the environment, as well as particulates, said Lalit Dandona. He heads the India State-Level Disease Burden Initiative, a research group studying health issues in India.

拉蒂·丹多纳说,燃烧的轮胎会向环境释放大量有害的化学物质和气体,以及微粒。他领导印度国家级疾病负担计划,这是一个研究印度健康问题的研究小组。

Dandona said short-term effects included skin irritation and lung infections. Longer exposure could result in heart attacks and lung cancer, he said.

丹多纳说,短期影响包括皮肤刺激和肺部感染。他说,长期接触可能导致心脏病和肺癌。

香港本港台现场报码Other government agencies worldwide have reached similar conclusions。

世界各地的其他政府机构也得出了类似的结论。

I'm John Russell. And I'm Ashley Thompson.

约翰·拉塞尔和阿什利·汤普森为您报道。

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